Williamsport: Two Day The Almost Capital, Falling Waters, Canawlers, Soldiers, and Four Locks
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These itineraries, “Canal Towns: In the Shadows of the Civil War,” were developed, in part, with State Funds from the Maryland Heritage Areas Authority, an instrumentality of the State of Maryland. However, the contents and opinions do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Maryland Heritage Areas Authority. Photographs were provided by Judy Olsen Photography unless otherwise noted.
Itinerary 4: The Almost Capital, Falling Waters, Canawlers, Soldiers, and Four Locks
This 2-day itinerary captures Williamsport’s must-see sites related to the Civil War and includes an excursion to the community of Four Locks along the C & O Canal. Begin Day 1 of your visit to this delightful canal community at the Town & Local History Museum, then drive to the site of the Battle of Falling Waters (5 miles from town), which marked the end of the Gettysburg Campaign. Learn about the Wagoners’ Fight then head back to town to peek into lives of “canawlers” at Cushwa Basin. If you’re feeling adventurous, bike 5 miles down the towpath to where the last of Confederate troops crossed the Potomac River after clashing with Union cavalry at Falling Waters. At Doubleday Hill enjoy dramatic views across the Potomac and learn about the hill’s significance during the war. Visit the burial sites of notable people at Riverview Cemetery.
Begin Day 2 with a short walking tour of town that includes some quirkier highlights. Next, either bike along the C & O Canal towpath to Four Locks (21.6 miles roundtrip from Cushwa Basin) or drive (8.7 miles). If driving, the distance will be longer if you want to also stop by Dam #5 and McCoys Ferry.
America’s Almost Capital City
Start your visit at the Town & Local History Museum in the stunning 18th-century barn at Springfield Farm (Springfield Lane, across from the high school). The museum features town memorabilia Civil War stories from the area, C & O Canal history, photographs, and more (Sundays, March through November, 1-4 PM and by appointment: 301-223-7711; free admission).
During the second weekend in July, don’t miss the Retreat Through Williamsport, where re-enactors stage some of Civil War skirmishes that took place here in 1863. Visit the town’s website for a full calendar of Williamsport events throughout the year.
George Washington once considered Williamsport for the capital city of the newly born United States, and you can still see a stone laid to designate the proposed Federal Square. From Cushwa Basin go about 50 yards up Potomac Street. On the left-hand side, across from Miller’s Lumber Company, look for a cut in the stone wall between the two houses. The marker is an X carved into a stone laid in the ground at the middle of the cut.
After exploring the museum, drive out to the site of the skirmish at Falling Waters.
“…the enemy’s cavalry dashed in upon us,…”
The Battle at Falling Waters on July 14, 1863, is considered the last skirmish of the Gettysburg Campaign when the rearguard of Confederate troops on their retreat through Williamsport crossed the Potomac River.
The battle site is on private property but you can drive to it. From Williamsport, the site is 4.3 miles; take Conococheague Street (MD 63/68) south. Shortly after going under Interstate 81, turn west (right) on Spielman Road (MD 63); the road curves to head south. In just under a mile (2 miles from Williamsport), turn right on Falling Waters Road. The winding, rollercoaster road heads south before turning west again toward the river. From the turnoff at Falling Waters Road, the Donnelly house is 2.7 miles, and is just after Beagle Lane (on the right). You can pull over to the side of the road, but please no trespassing on the grounds. The house is occupied and is private property. Summer rubber-necking can get crowded here, so use caution and give way to passing traffic.
During the battle, the 1st and 3rd Cavalry Divisions of the Army of the Potomac, under Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick, charged the Confederate rearguard under command of Maj. Gen. Henry Heth. Some of the fighting took place on the hill next to the house. Though taken by surprise, the Confederates were able to fend off the Union Cavalry (of which George Armstrong Custer was a part). They then retreated to the river crossing about 2 miles farther down the road and made it across. Unfortunately for the Confederates, Brig. Gen. J.J. Pettigrew had been mortally wounded in the battle (shot near the house) and died several days later at Bunker Hill. To see the site of the river crossing, you must access it from the C & O Canal towpath (5.2 miles one-way from Cushwa Basin.
On the way back to town, stop by the Redmen’s Club along Lappans Road (MD 68) to a Civil War Trail marker the discusses the Wagoners’ Fight that took place during Lee’s retreat through Williamsport. From the Donnelly house, retrace your path back down Falling Waters Road. Turn left at Spielman Road then right at the traffic signal at Lappans/MD 68. Less than 0.5 mile down is the entrance to the Redmen’s Club (on the right). The trail marker sign right next to the parking lot on the right as you enter.
Head back to Williamsport to explore Cushwa Basin.
A Classic Canal Town
Williamsport has more canal features within a half-mile stretch than any other town along the 184.5-mile canal. An aqueduct, a lock and lock house, turning basin, trolley barn, and both a railroad lift bridge and Bollman truss bridge make up the collection of historical gems, all examples of major canal structures. In addition, you’ll find a canal warehouse repurposed as a visitor center (1 of 7) for the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park (summer hours: daily, 9 AM – 4:30 PM; winter hours: Wednesday – Sunday, 9 AM – 4:30 PM). Before you head out to explore Cushwa Basin and the towpath, pick up the walking tour brochure in the visitor center.
On the first Saturday in June, children can drop a line in the turning basin during the annual Fishing Rodeo, angling for blue gill, catfish, and bass. The canal through Williamsport is rewatered during summer and you can get a taste of “canawler” life aboard a replica canal launch boat (Memorial Day-Labor Day; call 301-582-0813 for hours of operation and fee).
Just north of the turning basin you’ll see the aqueduct crossing Conococheague Creek—1 of 11 aqueducts built along the canal that allowed boats to cross the larger creeks flowing into the Potomac. In 1862, Union troops destroyed the aqueduct to prevent Lee from escaping through Williamsport after the battle of Antietam. In June 1863, Confederates damaged it on their way to Gettysburg and again during their retreat through Williamsport a few weeks later. In 1920, the wall on the upstream creek side collapsed. Finally, in 1924 a monumental flood destroyed the aqueduct for good.
Downstream of Cushwa Basin you can view the only railroad lift bridge on the whole canal. The elevating bridge was built in 1923-24 for $100,000. As its name suggests, it lifted like an elevator to allow boats to pass under—not when trains were on it, of course! But it never saw much use. Just downstream of that is the Bollman bridge, designed by the renowned engineer Wendel Bollman. The bridge was finished in 1879 and restored in 2004 and is one of few surviving Bollman works in America. The piers on which it rests today once supported another bridge, across which Gen. Lee and his troops came on their way to Gettysburg.
Continue downstream along the canal towpath to Lockhouse 44 (1 mile roundtrip from Cushwa Basin). If you want to drive to Lockhouse 44 from Cushwa Basin, drive up Potomac Street 1 block and turn right on Vermont Street. Take Vermont 3 blocks to the end, bearing right onto Canal Street (cemetery on your right). Take an immediate left onto Main Street; the lock house parking lot is just past the houses.
Lock House 44 is 1 of only 26 surviving along the C & O Canal and showcases the gate mechanism used to operate the boat-locking system. The house was built after the Civil War but during the war, a storehouse and mill stood nearby.
For a longer day, continue downstream to the site where the last of Confederate troops crossed the Potomac after the Battle of Falling Waters on July 14, 1863. Nothing is left of the hastily constructed pontoon bridge the Rebels cobbled together during their retreat but the site is noted by an interpretive wayside and marker. The crossing is at towpath milepost 94.4, which is 5.2 miles from Cushwa Basin (one way).
Unless you want to continue downstream, head back to Cushwa Basin to visit Doubleday Hill and Riverview Cemetery.
“The United States was called upon…to defend its sovereignty…” -Capt. A. Doubleday
You might think of the great American sport of baseball when you hear Abner Doubleday’s name, the man credited with inventing the sport—a disputed claim and never once mentioned by Doubleday himself! Everyone, however, knows that the town’s Doubleday Hill was named for the man who led Union Army troops in building breastworks at Williamsport. From the start of the Civil War, the town had been bombarded by Confederates from across the Potomac River. Today three replica cannon stand guard on the hill. To reach the hill, drive or walk to Riverview Cemetery above the canal. Doubleday Hill is the small area on the north end. See remnants of the 1861 breastworks below the hillock that flies the flag. Where the hillock is now a low-slung building once stored munitions. As you stand on the hill, you know why it was chosen for the job: Union troops posted there would have easily seen Confederates crossing the river.
Doubleday shares “his” hill with Riverview Cemetery, where soldiers of wars throughout America’s history, from the Revolution through World War II, are interred. Look for the stones engraved with the insignia of the Grand Army of the Republic (a badge shape), which identifies Union soldiers. One soldier buried next to Doubleday Hill, James Hawken, actually served with the Confederates, as indicated on his stone by the letters “CSA,” Confederate States of America. Stones with the letters “USCT” denote members of the United States Colored Troops. One hundred seventy-five regiments of African Americans were formed in 1863, making up about one-tenth of the Union Army.
Others buried at Riverview include: General Otho Holland Williams, town founder; Cletus “Boots” Poffenberger, 1930s pitcher for the Detroit Tigers and the Brooklyn Dodgers; and Harvey Brant, the last keeper of Lock 44 on the C & O Canal.
Begin Day 2 with a short walking tour of town that includes some quirkier highlights. Next, drive 7 miles to Hagerstown, where plenty of Civil War sites will keep you busy. Visit the Confederate Cemetery, Miller House, Doleman Black Heritage Museum, and the Jonathan Hager House and Museum.
Williamsport on Foot
From the cemetery, take a walking tour of town. Exit the cemetery on Commerce Street, go 1 block, and turn right on Salisbury Street. On the left at the end of the next block (corner of Conococheague Street and Salisbury) is Town Hall. Across Conococheague Street here, in June 1861, DeWitt Clinton Rench was shot and killed for proselytizing in favor of the Confederates. Locals call it the first Washington County fatality in the Civil War.
If you want to do the rest of the tour on foot or bike, park in the bank parking lot behind Town Hall. Head north on Conococheague Street to Potomac Street. The blue building on the northwest corner was the Taylor Hotel during the Civil War. On the corner (Conococheague St. side) look for a small protrusion in the curb, an extra stone painted red. Legend says Gen. Lee stood on this stone (which was 2 feet high then) to answer citizens’ questions about the state of the war during his retreat.
During Lee’s retreat through Williamsport, the town played reluctant host to thousands of Confederate troops trying to reach Virginia (now West Virginia) after their defeat at Gettysburg. Unable to cross the rain-swollen river, Rebels were trapped between the river and an advancing Union cavalry. For 10 days they waited, while using every scrap of wood from fences, barns, and other buildings—even whole canal boats—to construct pontoon bridges for the crossing. As you stroll along Potomac Street imagine what it was like for the town to be overrun with soldiers. Many of the buildings still standing, including the lovely St. Augustine’s Catholic Church, served as regimental hospitals for Confederates wounded at Gettysburg.
From Potomac Street, turn right (south) on Artizan Street and go 1.5 blocks to #22, now the Star of Hope (Pentecostal) Chapel. Completed in 1868, the building was the first African American school in Washington County.
Continue to E. Church Street and turn right (west); go about 1 block to #16, a large white house with yellow trim. The house (private property) once harbored the John Brown Bell during—and long after—the war. The bell had hung in the Engine House at Harpers Ferry, where John Brown and company were captured after raiding the armory.
If you parked your car behind Town Hall, continue down Church Street and turn right (north) on Conococheague; go 1 block to Salisbury.
The C & O Canal: Cushwa Basin to McCoys Ferry
If you want a little adventure by bike, head upstream to McCoys Ferry, a site frequently used by both Rebel and Federal troops during the Civil War. The journey is 21.6 miles round trip from Cushwa Basin. On the way, you’ll go by Dam #5 and Locks 45 through 50 (a.k.a. Four Locks), as well as Lock House 49, which is part of the Canal Quarters Program. Before setting out, pick up a copy of the Four Locks Walking Guide from the C & O Canal visitor center at Cushwa Basin.
Dam #5 is 7 miles upstream along the towpath from Cushwa Basin. Here on December 7-8, 1861, Confederates from Stonewall’s Brigade and Col. Turner Ashby’s cavalry attempted to destroy the dam. Sharpshooters from Massachusetts were called in, and citizens also took up arms in defense of Dam #5.
At towpath milepost 108.8 you’ll find Four Locks, a short stretch of canalway consisting of Locks 47-50, once a thriving little community. Together the locks created a 4-mile shortcut in the canal across Prather’s Neck. Union troops were posted here in 1861 to defend the canal, and in December of that year drove off Confederates into Little Georgetown across the river.
The Four Locks community occupied 548 acres of land purchased by the C & O Canal Company from James Prather. More than 30 buildings once crowded this 0.25-mile stretch of land and included houses, warehouses, stores, a 1-room school, and post office. You can read more about the community in the walking guide.
From Four Locks it’s another 1.6 miles to McCoys Ferry. In the wee hours on May 23, 1863, Virginians tried to take the ferry boat but were fired on by Clear Springs Guards. The ferry was later retrieved downstream. In October 1862 Gen. J.E.B. Stuart crossed the river here to raid Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. In July 1864, Gen. Jubal A. Early’s cavalry crossed here on their way to burn Chambersburg.